Cannabis-Induced Psychosis and an Antipsychotic-Induced Seizure: A Case Report

Some studies suggest that cannabis-induced psychosis is an early sign of schizophrenia rather than a distinct clinical entity, while other studies suggest that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychosis with a dose-dependent effect. The following case study describes a young man with no prior or family history of psychosis who became psychotic after smoking cannabis twice.

Prim Care Companion/Cannabis-Induced Psychosis and an Antipsychotic-Induced Seizure: A Case Report

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Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY
Potential conflicts of interest: None.
Funding/support: None.
Published online: February 2, 2017.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2017;19(1):16l01993
© Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

 

WHAT THE SCIENCE SAYS ABOUT ADOLESCENT USE OF CANNABIS (‘White Paper’)

By Linda Gertson, Ph.D.
(PATRICK ZARATE, DIVISION MANAGER, VENTURA COUNTY BEHAVIORAL HEALTH, ALCOHOL & DRUG PROGRAMS • APRIL 2016)

As more states, including California, move forward with the legalization of both medical and recreational use of
cannabis, it is important to educate the public about the risks of adolescent use of this drug and to ensure that policies
are included in the legislation which will provide for the prevention and treatment of early onset use. The majority of
experts referred to in this report emphasize the need to “deter, delay and detect” use of cannabis during adolescence
due to evidence from multiple scientific studies demonstrating that regular use during adolescence is associated with
cognitive deficits, educational under-achievement and increased risk of psychotic disorders, especially in those with
genetic vulnerability.

Read the White Paper here: WHAT THE SCIENCE SAYS ABOUT ADOLESCENT USE OF CANNABIS

 

Marijuana legalization is a risk not worth taking — CNN.COM

By Stuart Gitlow ( Note: Dr Gitlow is immediate past president of ASAM. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) is the United States’ leading addiction medicine professional society representing over 4,000 physicians, clinicians and associated professionals with a focus on addiction and its treatment).

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

Stuart Gitlow: More U.S. states are opening the door to legalizing marijuana

Gitlow: Research indicates 1 in 6 teens who start using marijuana will become addicted

He says with pot, people can also experience long-term psychiatric disease

Gitlow: As a society, why would we want to take on such health risks and costs?

“Why would we as a society choose to do this? If I told you I’m selling a lottery ticket where you have a chance of winning and must accept 1) a benefit that will last a few hours, 2) a permanently malfunctioning brain, 3) lifelong addiction or 4) — the PowerBall — psychosis, would you play? The New York Times editorial board think that risk is worth taking, as it promotes legalization of marijuana sales and use. Why would it and other marijuana proponents put the public in harm’s way?”

Marijuana legalization is a risk not worth taking

Public perceptions about pot have come a long way, from the dire warnings of “Reefer Madness” to growing acceptance of medical marijuana to the legalization of recreational weed use. Editor’s note: Dr. Stuart Gitlow is the president of the American Society of Addiction Medicine and chairman of the scientific advisory board of Smart Approaches to Marijuana.

This Is How One Pot Smoker Learned That Weed Plays a Mysterious Role in Psychosis | VICE News

 

This Is How One Pot Smoker Learned That Weed Plays a Mysterious Role in Psychosis | VICE News

This story is part of a partnership between MedPage Today and VICE News. In the year before his first and only psychotic episode, Devan Fuentes, who was then a 19-year-old community college freshman, was smoking four or five joints a day. Marijuana didn’t affect him the way it affected most other people.

 SEE  (2) VIDEOS in VICE News.

 

The likelihood of marijuana initiation rebounded at age 18 for a second peak. This corresponds to another major milestone in the lives of many young adults, said Bin Yu, M.D., M.P.H., one of the study’s co-authors, and a research assistant in the UF department of epidemiology.
“At 18, many adolescents leave their parents’ homes to start college or enter the workforce,” Yu said. “They may be more susceptible to influence from peers and they have less monitoring by their parents and the community.”
The researchers found that by age 21, 54 percent of young adults will have used marijuana.

UF study finds teens’ likelihood of trying marijuana peaks at ages 16, 18

The likelihood adolescents will try marijuana rises steadily from age 11 to age 16, then decreases before hitting another peak at age 18, according to a new University of Florida study.

 

Cannabis: Scientists Call For Action Amid Mental Health Concerns

By Ian Sample | Science Editor | April 15, 2016

The risks of heavy cannabis for mental health are serious enough to warrant global public health campaigns, according to international drugs experts who said young people were particularly vulnerable.

Estimates suggest that deterring heavy use of cannabis could prevent 8-24% of psychosis cases handled by treatment centres, depending on the area. In London alone, where the most common form of cannabis is high-potency skunk, avoiding heavy use could avert many hundreds of cases of psychosis every year.

The warning from scientists in the UK, US, Europe and Australia reflects a growing consensus that frequent use of the drug can increase the risk of psychosis in vulnerable people, and comes as the UN prepares to convene a special session on the global drugs problem for the first time since 1998.

Cannabis: scientists call for action amid mental health concerns

The risks of heavy cannabis for mental health are serious enough to warrant global public health campaigns, according to international drugs experts who said young people were particularly vulnerable.

 

Can we please stop pretending marijuana is harmless?  The truth is it can indeed mean trouble, especially for young people.

By:  Dr. Sushrut Jangi   10-8-15   (Dr. Sushrut Jangi is an internist and instructor in medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical)

 

But underscoring the incredible momentum to legalize marijuana is the misconception that the drug can’t hurt anybody. It can, especially young people.

Can we please stop pretending marijuana is harmless? – The Boston Globe

These days, it’s become fairly square to criticize marijuana and its rush toward legalization. Twenty-three states have condoned the drug in some form, with four permitting recreational use, and Massachusetts is set to vote on permitting it next year.

Is cannabis “safer” than alcohol?

FEATURE | Posted March 23, 2016 

 Not from an economic or social point-of-view, UC Davis study finds  

“People who smoked cannabis four or more days of the week over many years ended up in a lower social class than their parents, with lower-paying, less skilled and less prestigious jobs than those who were not regular cannabis smokers,” said Magdalena Cerdá, an epidemiologist at the UC Davis Violence Prevention Research Program. “These regular and persistent users also experienced more financial, work-related and relationship difficulties, which worsened as the number of years of regular cannabis use progressed.” Cerdá is lead author of a research study with colleagues at Duke University that has been following a group of children born in 1972-1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand, from birth to age 38 to assess changes in health over a lifetime. The research team recently published a study on the impact of heavy and persistent cannabis use among these research participants. 

Is cannabis “safer” than alcohol?

FEATURE | Posted March 23, 2016 It’s often said that marijuana is “safer” than alcohol, in terms of fewer deaths from overdoses, traffic accidents and health-care costs, but a study by UC Davis and Duke researchers has found that from a financial and social point-of-view, there’s nothing safe about heavy cannabis use.

 

 

Nancy Reagan’s ‘Just Say No’ Campaign Helped Halve Number of Teens on Drugs

By Brian Blake| March 11, 2016

When the Reagans moved into the White House on Jan. 20, 1981, drug use, particularly among teenagers, was hovering near the highest rates ever measured. Of that year’s graduating class, 65 percent had used drugs in their lifetimes and a remarkable 37 percent were regular drug users.

Nancy Reagan’s ‘Just Say No’ Campaign Helped Halve Number of Teens on Drugs – by Brian Blake

When the Reagans moved into the White House on Jan. 20, 1981, drug use, particularly among teenagers, was hovering near the highest rates ever measured. Of that year’s graduating class, 65 percent had used drugs in their lifetimes and a remarkable 37 percent were regular drug users.

 

How Marijuana May Drive the Brain into Psychosis

By Live Science Staff | January 3, 2012

Two ingredients in marijuana have opposite effects on certain regions of the brain, according to a new study. One chemical, called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), increases the brain processes that can lead to symptoms of psychosis, while another compound, called cannabidiol, may negate such symptoms, according to the study.

How Marijuana May Drive the Brain into Psychosis

Two ingredients in marijuana have opposite effects on certain regions of the brain, according to a new study. One chemical, called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), increases the brain processes that can lead to symptoms of psychosis, while another compound, called cannabidiol, may negate such symptoms, according to the study.

 

 

Preliminary Research Links Habitual Marijuana Use With Inhibited Mental Development

By Valerie Lapointe | March 17, 2016

“The main area of discussion when it comes to cannabis these days seems to be legalization,” said Leslie Oldhom, a neuroscience fellow and researcher. “Do you think that in the rush to legalize this substance we’ve jumped over some scientific questions about what health effects we might see from its widespread use in the population?”

Preliminary research links habitual marijuana use with inhibited mental development

Habitual marijuana use may inhibit the brain from maturing properly, according to on-going research conducted by a team of scientists at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science in North Chicago. Kuei Tseng, associate professor of molecular pharmacology, reported Tuesday on preliminary findings from the research with rats.

 

Cannabis-induced psychosis without family history  (new study) AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers
CJA Morgan et al :  

Translational Psychiatry (2016) 6, e738; doi:10.1038/tp.2015.219; published online 16 February 2016

The most recent study published shows that those without a family history (of psychosis) will develop cannabis-induced psychosis in the clinic if they have a mutation in AKT1 – speaks about a  susceptibility in the cannabis users.

Scientists from the University of Exeter and University College London conducted the study, hoping to understand a deeper connection between cannabis use, the treatment of psychosis and the presence of the AKT1 gene.In the past, studies of this kind used patients already suffering from psychosis. For the first time in history, only healthy, young individuals carrying the varied AKT1 gene were selected. Researchers monitored 442 users, while sober and high, measuring the severity of the symptoms of intoxication and memory loss.By choosing only healthy participants, the results were able to show a clear connection between the presence of the varied AKT1 gene and marijuana use; there would be no risk of other medical factors affecting the results. In addition to health, age was also considered when choosing participants. Young people were used in the study to ensure even less risk of unknown mental or physical abnormalities. The study proved people carrying the gene, who are otherwise healthy, are much more likely to experience hallucinations, paranoia, visual distortions and other psychotic-like symptoms while high.

If You Have This Gene You May Need To Be Wary Of Cannabis

For years, cannabis users have been warned about the serious, long-term mental health risks of excessive consumption. Paranoia, anxiety, memory loss and depression are just a few symptoms commonly associated with overindulgence of herb. A new study shows there might be even more reason to ingest in moderation; a heightened risk of cannabis-induced psychosis has been found in users with the AKT1 genotype.

 

Teens  Who Use Cannabis At Higher Risk of Schizophrenia

Teens who use cannabis at risk of schizophrenia

Exposure to marijuana in adolescence leads to schizophrenia-like changes in the brain, according to research published in the journal Cerebral Cortex. Cannabis, widely used among teens, can have serious consequences. Statistics from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that 15% of 8th graders have tried marijuana and over 1% use it daily.

 

Marijuana Addiction is Real; Cannabis Use Disorder Affects 6 Million Americans, Few Receive Mental Health Treatment

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March 17, 2016 | By Jaleesa Baulkman

The study, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, found that six million adults have experienced marijuana use disorder in the past year, but only 7 percent received any marijuana-specific treatment.

“We feel strongly that more public health education about the dangers associated with marijuana use is imperative,” stated Hasin. “This is especially critical since we are learning more about public beliefs that marijuana use is harmless.”

 

U.S. Firms Target Investment in Israeli Cannabis R&D

U.S. Firms Target Investment In Israeli Cannabis R&D

Already a pioneer in high-tech and cutting-edge agriculture, Israel is starting to attract American companies looking to bring medical marijuana know-how to a booming market back home. Since 2014, U.S. firms have invested about $50 million in licensing Israeli medical marijuana patents, cannabis agro-tech startups and firms developing delivery devices such as inhalers, said Saul Kaye, CEO of iCAN, a private cannabis research hub.

March 29, 2016 | By Reuters

Scientists say strict rules, some set by the Drug Enforcement Administration, limit cannabis studies in the United States, where the legal marijuana market is valued at $5.7 billion and expected to grow to to $23 billion by 2020.

In Israel, marijuana is an illegal drug and only 23,000 people have Health Ministry permits to purchase medical cannabis from nine licensed suppliers, creating a market of $15 million to $20 million at most.

“Israel is a leader in agriculture, take that and couple it with research – you have the two sides, plant science and pharmaceutical development,” Friedland said.

“If you’re in California or Colorado, you’re getting medical marijuana in a lot of cases from someone who did not graduate high-school – there’s no science.”

ACP HOSPITALIST
Public health researchers look at rise in marijuana-related hospitalizations

From the January ACP Hospitalist, copyright © 2016 by the American College of Physicians

By Mollie Durkin
After a decrease in hospitalizations related to marijuana alone from 2004 to 2007, these inpatient admissions ballooned from 11,267 in 2007 to 20,471 in 2011—an 82% increase, said Dr. Zhu, a postdoctoral associate at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C.

“The use of cannabis has been found to be associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes in both the short term and the long term,” said Dr. Zhu, noting that it can be linked to drug use disorder, anxiety, psychotic symptoms, breathing problems, increased heart rate, impaired driving, and an increased risk of other substance abuse. “Thus, the increase of cannabis use and its adverse health effects will potentially place more burden on health care systems.”

She expressed concerns about marijuana legalization, as more than 20 states have legalized medical marijuana, and 3 states have made recreational marijuana legal. “This…may potentially contribute to more cannabis consumption in the future,” Dr. Zhu said.

Public health researchers look at rise in marijuana-related hospitalizations

The prevalence of marijuana use in the U.S. more than doubled between 2001 and 2013, according to a study published in October 2015 by JAMA Psychiatry. Hospital utilization related to the drug appears to have increased in tandem, according to a new analysis, presented at the American Public Health Association’s annual meeting, held in Chicago in November.

 

Potent Pot: Marijuana Is Stronger Now Than It Was 20 Years Ago

by Agata Blaszczak-Boxe, Contributing Writer   |   February 08, 2016 05:24pm

Previous research has also shown that the potency of marijuana, including the marijuana sold in states where its recreational use is now legal, has increased over the years. For example, in a study presented in March 2015 at a meeting of the American Chemical Society, researchers said they found that samples of marijuana in Colorado contained as much as 30 percent THC. In comparison, the levels of THC in marijuana 30 years ago were generally below 10 percent, the researchers said.

When the researchers looked at the ratio of THC to CBD, they found that marijuana in 1995 had a THC level that was 14 times its CBD level. But in 2014, the THC level was 80 times the CBD leve

The increase in marijuana’s potency may have some negative health consequences for marijuana users, especially young ones, ElSohly said.

Potent Pot: Marijuana Is Stronger Now Than It Was 20 Years Ago

Pot is becoming more potent, a new study suggests. In the study, the researchers looked at more than 38,600 samples of illegal marijuana seized by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration over 20 years. They found that the level of THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol – marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient – in the marijuana samples rose from about 4 percent in 1995 to about 12 percent in 2014.

Dec, 2015 – this journalist in Scientific American reviews numerous recent studies showing harmful effects of highly potent cannabis, but casual links remain unclear. The results of one of the  current studies reviewed, nonetheless, captured the attention of numerous news outlets—with some claiming that using highly potent marijuana can cause brain damage

Marijuana Madness: Hopped-Up Weed May Pose Risks for Users

On the street it’s called skunk for its intense, pungent odor. But the smell isn’t the only thing that’s strong about this type of marijuana. These increasingly popular strains contain high levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive substance in cannabis that causes its euphoric effects.

 

Sue Bailey, The Canadian Press 6-8-15

Scientific studies increasingly suggest marijuana may not be the risk-free high that teens — and sometimes their parents — think it is, researchers say. Yet pot is still widely perceived by young smokers as relatively harmless, said Dr. Romina Mizrahi, director of the Focus on Youth Psychosis Prevention clinic and research program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Such fallout is increasingly evident in the 19-bed crisis monitoring unit at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Ottawa.

 

Smoking pot can be dangerous for teens’ developing brains

Scientific studies increasingly suggest marijuana may not be the risk-free high that teens – and sometimes their parents – think it is, researchers say. Yet pot is still widely perceived by young smokers as relatively harmless, said Dr. Romina Mizrahi, director of the Focus on Youth Psychosis Prevention clinic and research program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

 

 

 

Recent study from King’s College London (Nov, 2015):

  • Study found drug damages corpus callosum area of the brain 
  • Researchers at King’s College London studied brains of 100 people
  • Said regular skunk users had ‘significantly greater’ damage to their brains (white matter damage caused by ‘skunk-like cannabis)

Proof strong cannabis DOES harm your brain

Study found drug damages corpus callosum area of the brain Researchers at King’s College London studied brains of 100 people Said regular skunk users had ‘significantly greater’ damage to their brains Smoking super-strength cannabis can cause significant levels of brain damage, a study has shown.

 

“A Danish study of 7,075  individuals followed from 1994-2005 showed that not only is the absence of a familial  history of mental illness no protection against cannabis-induced psychosis, “the risk of schizophrenia and cannabis-induced psychosis and timing of onset were unrelated to familial disposition”.

Familial Predisposition for Psychiatric Disorder

Context Cannabis-induced psychosis is considered a distinct clinical entity in the existing psychiatric diagnostic systems. However, the validity of the diagnosis is uncertain. Objectives To establish rate ratios of developing cannabis-induced psychosis associated with predisposition to psychosis and other psychiatric disorders in a first-degree relative and to compare them with the corresponding rate ratios for developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

 

 

 

 

 

White matter damage caused by ‘skunk-like’ cannabis, study shows. Smoking high potency ‘skunk-like’ cannabis can damage a crucial part of the brain responsible for communication between the two brain hemispheres, according to a new study by scientists from King’s College London and Sapienza University of Rome.

 

http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/news/records/2015/november/Study-shows-white-matter-damage-caused-by-skunk-like-cannabis.aspx

 

 

 

COMMENTARY  7-1-13 by Samuel Wilkinson, Yale School of Medicine:  Pot-Smoking And the Schizophrenia Connection

There is a significant and consistent relationship between marijuana use and the development of schizophrenia and related (psychiatric)disorders. Schizophrenia is considered by psychiatrists to be the most devastating of mental illnesses. Patients who suffer from it often experience auditory or visual hallucinations, severe social withdrawal and cognitive impairment. Many require frequent and prolonged hospitalization in psychiatric wards.  The association between schizophrenia and marijuana is not the only issue at play in the debate over marijuana legalization. If legalization is certain to decrease the power of drug lords in Mexico and other countries, then this is certainly a favorable outcome. However, if the trade-off is that more people suffer from schizophrenia—and thus more Americans are homeless and debilitated—then this must be recognized and discussed by the general public. This association between marijuana and serious and devastating psychotic disorders has been absent or under-recognized in the public debate.
Read the article on wsj.com>

 

 

Samuel T. Wilkinson: Pot-Smoking And the Schizophrenia Connection

Recent legislation has permitted the recreational use of marijuana in Colorado and Washington state. Those who support legalization often tout the lack of serious medical consequences associated with the drug. Most of us know people who used marijuana in high school or college and seem to have suffered no significant medical consequences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pot’s Dark Side: Delusions, Psychotic Symptoms

Smoking marijuana can lead to more than a euphoric high, and has been linked to long-lasting delusions, mouth swelling and several other surprising effects, according to a new review of research on the recreational use of the drug.

 

 

 

A review of the study in the Journal of Neuroscience (2014) where brain scans of both casual pot smokers versus non-pot smokers showed alterations in the two brain regions especially the more # of joints per week smoked by the participants (nucleus accumbens-involved in pleasure-seeking and motivation, strongly linked to addiction and the amydala-involved in emotion, fear, stress response & drug craving).

Even Recreational Marijuana May Be Linked To Brain Changes

Adding to earlier evidence that marijuana may be linked to lasting neurological changes, a new study in the Journal of Neuroscience today finds that even casual pot smoking may have an effect on the size and structure of certain brain regions.

 

 

 

 

 

Review by the BBC News (2011) of the medical journal article “Cannabis use ‘raises psychosis risk’-published in the British Medical Journal discussed  by one of the lead researchers in this study Professor Jim van Os from Maastricht Univ Netherlands strongly suggests the link between cannabis and psychosis is well established and that cannabis use “significantly” increased the risk of psychotic symptoms. The study involved tracking 1,900 people over a period of 10 years

Cannabis use ‘raises psychosis risk’ – study – BBC News

Using cannabis as a teenager or young adult increases the risk of psychosis, a report suggests. The study published in the medical journal BMJ involved tracking 1,900 people over a period of 10 years. Although the link between cannabis and psychosis is well established, it had been unclear whether cannabis triggered the disorder.

 

 

 

 

Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study

The observation frame was part of the early developmental stages of psychopathology (EDSP) study, which collected data on the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, comorbidity, and course of mental disorders in a random representative population sample of adolescents and young adults in the general population.

 

 

 

Does cannabis use predict the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the adult population? (2007) A strong association was found between cannabis use and the first incidence of depression and bipolar disorder. This study was conducted by the Trimbos Institute, Netherlands and the National Institute of Mental Health & Addiction-Utrecht, Netherlands.

Does cannabis use predict the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the adult population?

Aims To investigate whether cannabis use predicted the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in adults during a 3-year follow-up period. Design and participants Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a prospective study in the adult population of 18-64 years.

 

 

 

Journalist, Cliff Kincaid, interviews Christine Miller, PhD (molecular neuroscientist and pharmacologist) who states the liberal media continue to ignore the relationship between marijuana and mental illness citing numerous recent violent news stories involving schizophrenic individuals using the drug. “Although the popular media misconception is that marijuana causes people to “mellow” and become harmless and lazy, Miller said evidence shows that it can “trigger psychotic thinking,” including the belief that one is being surrounded or confronted by hostile people. “A case in point was the defendant in the American Sniper trial, pot-smoking Eddie Routh, who perceived that Chris Kyle and Chad Littlefield were hostile towards him, and thinking they meant to do him harm, he shot them first,” Miller said. http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/kincaid/151203

Planned Parenthood killer was a deranged pothead

The liberals were quick to blame conservative Christians, Republicans, and others on the right for the carnage in the Colorado Planned Parenthood clinic. It turns out the killer was a paranoid pothead who probably moved to Colorado because it offered him plenty of legal weed.

 

 

 

 

Canadian journalist, Paul Brian, “Beware Perils of Pot Psychosis” October, 2015: Pot is potentially psychologically dangerous in the short and long-term in unpredictable and extreme ways. While the majority of adverse affects for users may range from minor memory loss or paranoia to lethargy, the more serious impacts of “bad trips” and negative reactions can be truly devastating. Imagine feeling physically and mentally like you are dying after smoking pot and then waking up for the next five years feeling full of paranoia, disorientation and dissociation because it has triggered a psychosis and panic attack disorder. An Australian study last year found that daily pot users are up to seven times more likely to commit suicide, 60 per cent less likely to finish high school or to get a college degree and are eight times more likely to use illegal drugs later in life. A surprising amount of people either don’t know about the psychiatric dangers of pot or believe it can only happen to people who are already mentally unstable. That is not the case. Let’s see the coming debate as an opportunity for greater education.

 

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A critique of the new study, Biological Psychiatry, 2015, reports that ∆9-THC increases random neural activity, termed neural noise, in the brains of healthy human subjects. The findings suggest that increased neural noise may play a role in the psychosis-like effects of cannabis. “At doses roughly equivalent to half or a single joint, ∆9-THC produced psychosis-like effects and increased neural noise in humans,” explained senior author Dr. Deepak Cyril D’Souza, a Professor of Psychiatry at Yale School of Medicine.

Cannabis increases the ‘neural noise’ in your brain

Several studies have demonstrated that the primary active constituent of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆ 9-THC), induces transient psychosis-like effects in healthy subjects similar to those observed in schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clear. A new study, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry , reports that ∆ 9-THC increases random neural activity, termed neural noise, in the brains of healthy human subjects.

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James Cook Univ researcher Alan Clough after a 5 year study of heavy marijuana  use in a remote indigenous  tribe of Australian Aborigines, 2009. 

Screen Shot 2016-02-23 at 12.21.52 PMSince the study began in 2004, the bulk of users surveyed reported continuing heavy use.
 “After 15 years of a cannabis epidemic we’re really starting to see the chronic mental effects appearing,”
Professor Clough said.  “
We’ve seen acute psychosis that is irreversible, as well as depression and dependence.
Unfortunately, we also have the situation where suicide is linked not just with cannabis use but also through  withdrawal.

Cannabis takes toll on Aborigines http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/cannabis-takes-toll-on-aborigines/story-e6frg6nf-1225795565468

 

 

February, 2015

‘Skunk-like cannabis’ increases risk of psychosis, study suggests – BBC News

Smoking potent cannabis was linked to 24% of new psychosis cases analysed in a study by King’s College London. The research suggests the risk of psychosis is three times higher for users of potent “skunk-like” cannabis than for non-users. The study of 780 people was carried out by KCL’s Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience.

 

St. Peter hospital reports rise in number of patients linked to dabbing

January 15, 2016

By Andy Hobbs

ahobbs@theolympian.com

A method of marijuana consumption known as dabbing has led to more emergency room visits and a new treatment protocol at Providence St. Peter Hospital in Olympia.

The hospital reports it sees an average of one to two people a day who are suffering from psychosis linked to dabbing. The process involves smoking a form of concentrated cannabis, such as hash oil, that delivers a single powerful dose of THC equivalent to smoking multiple joints. Dr. Rachel Wood, public health officer for Thurston and Lewis counties, recommends that parents learn more about electronic smoking devices that can be used to consume hash oil. “I’m just dismayed that our youth are using these products,” Wood said. “There’s a lot of education that needs to go on.”

St. Peter hospital reports rise in number of patients linked to dabbing

A method of marijuana consumption known as dabbing has led to more emergency room visits and a new treatment protocol at Providence St. Peter Hospital in Olympia. The hospital reports it sees an average of one to two people a day who are suffering from psychosis linked to dabbing.

 

 

Low patient numbers stir bankruptcy fears for Illinois marijuana dispensaries

WRITTEN BY EMILY GRAY BROSIOUS POSTED: 01/19/2016

Illinois’ medical cannabis program is one of the strictest in the country and only qualifies patients suffering from serious conditions, including cancer and HIV/AIDS, for marijuana treatment. The state does not qualify patients suffering from more common conditions such as chronic pain or sleep disorders.

Illinois medical marijuana businesses need more patients

Written By Emily Gray Brosious Posted: 01/19/2016, 11:05am Illinois’ medical marijuana program became operational in November, and dispensaries are already raising concerns that they may not stay afloat much longer unless more patients are enrolled in the state’s medical marijuana program, as reported by The Daily Herald.

 

 

Marijuana Policy Architectures: A Reply to Jon Caulkins

         Hudson Institute, Jan 20, 2016 By: David W.  Murray

And this research specifically notes that it is just such patterns of access, frequency, and persistence of use that contribute to the overall dependency-producing potential, in conjunction with the biology of the substance itself in relation to the brain. Simply put, were marijuana to be legal, and subject to access and use patterns comparable to alcohol or tobacco on a daily basis, the impact on subjects as found in dependency and addiction rates, while unknown, would likely be staggering.

 

Marijuana Policy Architectures: A Reply to Jon Caulkins – by David W. Murray

In the winter issue of National Affairs, Jon Caulkins seeks to answer the question, “is marijuana dangerous?” While acknowledging some of the known harms of the drug, he ultimately undersells marijuana’s health risks, calling them “minor.” He characterizes the drug as a “performance degrader” and “more dangerously, a temptation commodity with habituating tendencies.”

 

 

Lt. Governor Gavin Newsom’s Vague Response to UCSF Public Health Analysis of Marijuana Legalization Initiatives

Submitted by sglantz on Sun, 2016-02-14

In fact, our analysis of these provisions was far more nuanced than Newsom credited. Using evidence-based research from tobacco and alcohol control, we concluded that these provisions will likely have little to no effect on preventing youth initiation, protecting the general public, and containing the lobbying and economic power of the emerging marijuana industry.

One of the most ironic comments Newsom made at the end of the interview was: “[Marijuana] is a vice but it’s also medicinal, and that’s what distinguishes it from tobaccoThat said this is a terrible drug for our kids.”

 Why is protecting the general public not an important priority?

https://tobacco.ucsf.edu/lt-governor-gavin-newsom’s-vague-response-ucsf-public-health-analysis-marijuana-legalization-initiatives

 

Lt. Governor Gavin Newsom’s Vague Response to UCSF Public Health Analysis of Marijuana Legalization Initiatives

The Sacramento Bee posted a video of its February 11, 2016 meeting with Lt. Governor Gavin Newsom on his support for the Adult Use of Marijuana Act marijuana legalization initiative. In that interview Newsom dismissed the public health analysis of the two leading marijuana legalization initiatives I released with Dr. Stanton Glantz the week before, on February…

 

C.O. hospitals see dramatic spike in pot-related illnesses

Author: Kandra Kent

Published On: Feb 23 2016 10:02:39 PM CST

Updated On: Feb 24 2016 12:10:56 PM CST

Marijuana-related emergency room visits in Central Oregon have increased by 1,967 percent in recent years, according to St. Charles Health System.

The hospital group released the data to NewsChannel 21 after a request. It shows area hospitals report steady increases in marijuana-sickened patients since at least 2010. The biggest spikes in illness started just before the drug was available for recreational purchase in October.

 

C.O. hospitals see dramatic spike in pot-related illnesses

BEND, Ore. – Marijuana-related emergency room visits in Central Oregon have increased by 1,967 percent in recent years, according to St. Charles Health System. The hospital group released the data to NewsChannel 21 after a request. It shows area hospitals report steady increases in marijuana-sickened patients since at least 2010.

 

(Listen to the 2 min shocking video)

Marijuana: The New SnakeOil?

08/28/2012 08:18 am ET | Updated Oct 28, 2012

By David Sack, MD

Another Addicton Psychiatrist weighs in on the dangers of marijuana:

David Sack, M.D., is board certified in Addiction Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine

Is Medical Marijuana The New Snake Oil?

A considerable amount of attention is being paid to the the Los Angeles City Council’s recent decision to ban medical marijuana dispensaries in the city, while at the same time, in Oakland, a federal crackdown closed the nation’s largest cannabis dispensary.

 

 

 

Cannabis-Related ED Visits Rise in States With Legalized Use –

full article-2.pdf (page 1 of 3)

Results showed that “in general, abuse of cannabis has increased over the 6­year period of 2007 to 2012, with the most significant increase…in states where cannabis use is legal,” write the investigators.

“This poster is definitely starting to bring out some of the real concerns that I have as a healthcare provider ― that you are exposing more people to higher potency and riskier forms of the substance. This is not the shake weed that somebody smoked in the ’70s. This is four times more potent. It’s a much riskier proposition than a lot of people think.” (Dr Ryan Caldeiro)

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Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome: A case report review of treatment (Toxicology Reports 2 (2015) 889-890)

Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome_ A case report review of treatment – 1-s2.0-S2214750015300032-main

 

A Blunt Force to Crush Floridians’ Opposition to Marijuana

By Bertha K. Madras      March 2, 2016
Bertha K. Madras is a professor at Harvard Medical School –

The well-funded movement to medicalize marijuana spreading across our nation calls out for caution and restraint. Activists claim that marijuana is a safe medicine but de facto, it is evolving into a gateway for marijuana legalization. The claim conflicts with current science, with intelligent public health policy, with rigorous standards of the drug approval process, and with best practices of medicine.

A Blunt Force to Crush Floridians’ Opposition to Marijuana

The well-funded movement to medicalize marijuana spreading across our nation calls out for caution and restraint. Activists claim that marijuana is a safe medicine but de facto, it is evolving into a gateway for marijuana legalization. The claim conflicts with current science, with intelligent public health policy, with rigorous standards of the drug approval process, and with best practices of medicine.

 

 

Cannabis use linked to worse treatment outcomes for psychosis patients

MNT: Written by: Honor Whiteman

Published: Friday, 4 March 2016

Overall, they believe the findings suggest that cannabis use might be linked to worse clinical outcomes for patients with psychosis, partly mediated by the failure of antipsychotic treatment.

 

Cannabis use linked to worse treatment outcomes for psychosis patients

Patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis may endure worse treatment outcomes if they use cannabis, say researchers, after finding that such patients are 50% more likely to be admitted to the hospital after initial treatment than non-users of cannabis.

 

http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/3/e009888.full.pdf+html

 

Being a Garden Variety Drunk

Published: December 2, 2013, Written by: Jim LaPierre

One of the biggest failures of modern dual diagnosis treatment is that we often label those active in addiction or early in recovery with mental health conditions that they don’t have. One of the benefits of “old school” treatment was the recognition that an accurate baseline is unattainable prior to significant sober time (six to twelve months ideally). There are certainly times when addiction is masking and/or medicating a major mental illness, but too often clinicians jump to premature findings.

http://recoveryrocks.bangordailynews.com/2013/12/02/addiction/being-a-garden-variety-drunk/

 

How do we protect teenagers?

This suggests very widespread consumption among younger teenagers in some parts of the (UK)country, since problems don’t normally develop until after smoking large quantities of powerful weed. The problems that can arise from such abuse are devastating. Psychotic breakdowns smash up lives and can lead to full-blown schizophrenia. This is a small risk of a dreadful outcome, something well worth a proper public health campaign. Absolute proof that cannabis can drive a minority of users mad can’t be obtained for ethical reasons. But the evidence we have is compelling enough to justify a proper public education programme of sufficient power to get the message out to vulnerable users and their friends and peers.

The Guardian view on cannabis and psychosis: how do we protect teenagers? | Editorial

Drugs policy in the UK is not actually made in smoke-filled rooms but it might as well be. The mixture of befuddled optimism with a lack of urgency that characterises official thinking about cannabis has had dangerous results.


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